About 25% of infertility cases are due to the male issues; near 30% are due to female factors; and 33%, due to combined problems in both male and female. In 10-20% of cases, no known causes can be found.
In women, infertility increases significantly over 35 years old.
In younger women (34 and younger), the infertility evaluation and treatment is typically initiated after 1 year of trying to conceive.
In advanced female (35 years and older), diagnostic evaluation and treatment is recommended to start after 6 months of inability to conceive.
Common infertility factors in male
- Low sperm count (<20millions/ml) or lack of viable sperm)
- Sperm abnormality:
- Morphology (<50%)
- Motility (<50%)
- Semen factors:
- Low semen volume (< 1 ml/ejaculation)
- Abnormal pH (normal 7.2~7.8)
- Prolonged liquefaction time (normal within 20 min after ejaculation)
- Some sexual functional disorders (such as, retro ejaculation, ED).
Symptoms of male infertility
The underlying causes of infertility in male can be suggested by the following symptoms or conditions:
- Fatigue, low libido, erection or ejaculation difficulty
- Depressed or anxious mood, insomnia, dry mouth or thirsty, hair loss, sexual addiction, premature ejaculation
- Pain, lump, or swelling in the testicles; small testicles, overweight
- Medications (chemo/radiation), illicit drug usage, too much alcohol drink, smoking
- Unhealthy diets, environmental toxin exposure such as pesticides and heavy metals
Common infertility factors in female
- Anovulation (no egg released from ovary), commonly seen in:
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
- Blocked Fallopian tubes; abnormal cervical mucus (interferes sperms entering the uterus cavity
- Uterine and endometrial diseases
- Uterine fibroid
- Often causes painful menstruation and intercourse.
- Pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID).
- Common cause of infertility in women with normal menstruation under 30 years old
- Can cause a tubal problem
- Anti-sperm antibody formation
- Advanced age (mostly affects the egg quality)
- Stress, athletic training
- Medicine, poor diet, smoking, alcohol, environmental toxins
- Unknown causes
Symptoms of infertility in women
- Irregular periods, or no period; too long or too short periods
- Menstruation is too heavy or too light; painful menstruation
- Changes in sex drive and desire
- Feeling cold, fatigue, dry skins, hair loss, weight gain
- Dark hair growth on the lips and chest, more acne, insomnia, night sweating
- Milky white discharge from nipples unrelated to breastfeeding
- Pain during sex